Antiretroviral Efavirenz Mechanism of Action

Efavirenz mechanism of action is used to treat and prevent the growth of HIV virus. It comes under the category of antiretroviral medicine. This medicine does not cure the AIDS but it can stop the growth of virus. This can decrease the complication of HIV virus and helps to live the better life.

To prevent the spreading of disease you must take care by some rules.

Don’t share your personal things to other person like razors , toothbrushes, needle and syringe, these things may contact with your blood and having the chances of spreading of virus.

Efavirenz Side Effects  

Side effects of efavirenz mechanism of action are common like nausea, headache, feeling tired and sleeping trouble. Some serious side effect like depression ,liver problems and seizures and sucide thought are come to the patients. During the pregnancy time this medicine is avoided.

This medicine is approved by U.s in the 1998. And this medicine having more effective to combination of other regimen.

Efavirenz Mechanism of Action

Antiretroviral efavirenz directly inhibits HIV 1 virus. It is also noncompetitive inhibitor. But it is not inhibit the HIV 2 virus. This medicine is increase resistance power to NNRTIs (Non neucleoside reverse transcriptase ) which is a NNRTIs category medicine. It is always given to combine medicine for the effective action. If the patient failing to treatment of HIV /AIDS with NNRTI category drug don’t give another medicine of NNRTI medicine.

When viral caps-id enters into T-cell or other cell which is mainly containing CD4 substrate the viral caps-ids are collapsed. HIV Virus genetic material are enters in to host cell. This genetic material contain RNA of virus and some other enzyme. Among this enzyme reverse transcriber is present which helps to convert the RNA of virus to single strand DNA. So virus can replicate properly.

In this stage efavirenz mechanism of action will block the reverse transcriptase to attached the active side of Reverse transcriptase enzyme. So the enzyme don’t show the action of conversion of RNA to DNA. So growth of virus is gradually stop.

efavirenz mechanism of action


Oral absorption of efavirenz mechanism of action is approx. 50%. T1/2 of efavirenz is 48 hours. Antiretroviral efavirenz is metabolized by enzyme CYP2B6 and partially by the enzyme CYP3A4. Both are the cytochrome inducer category. Most interestingly this medicine induced the self metabolized enzyme. So the metabolism of this medicine is decrease when it take orally.

If the patients got treatment with nevirapine it may developed the tuberculosis. So doctor advice to take Efavirenz instead of nevirapine.

Dose of Efavirenz

Efavirenz mechanism of action is available in the solid oral dosage form which is capsule and tablets. Capsule which is present in 50 mg, 200 mg and in the 600 mg tablet content. In the HIV 1 infection 600 mg of this medicine is used for better effect with other medicine like protease inhibitor or NRTIs.

For maintenance dose you can take with varicolored dose and increase dose to 400 mg and decrease efavirenz to 300 mg per day. If you take the dose rifampicin then you take efavirenz 800 mg per day.

This medicine shows the better effect when you take it the empty stomach before 1 hour taking food in the night. If you forget to take medicine don’t take the extra dose next time otherwise it produce the over dose effect.

Some Condition You Don’t Take Efavirenz

  • If you are allergic then efavirenz mechanism of action can harm you so don’t take this medicine, and consult the doctor for this condition.
  • If you have any liver disease so don’t take this medicine.
  • If you take the medicine like astemizole, terfenadine, bepridil, cisapride, ergot alkaloids, midazolam, triazolam and pimozide so don’t take this medicine. Antiretroviral efavirenz is taken if other medicine don’t  act against HIV virus, it can take with any other medicine which acts against HIV virus.
  • If you have any mental illness, depression or any narcotic addition, if you fell any depression you can contact you doctor.
  • If you treated with anticonvulsant  treatment such as phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine etc.
  • If you have any liver problem then before stop this you need to discuss with doctor.

Antiretroviral Efavirenz

Antiretroviral efavirenz often referred to as EFV, not only combats the replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but does so with a distinct efavirenz mechanism of action. It binds to the viral enzyme reverse transcriptase, inhibiting its ability to convert the viral RNA into DNA, thus preventing the virus from integrating into the host’s genetic material.

What sets antiretroviral efavirenz apart is its long half-life, allowing for once-daily dosing, and its ability to penetrate the central nervous system, making it effective in controlling HIV in the brain, an area where the virus often hides. However, it’s important to note that efavirenz may cause central nervous system side effects, such as vivid dreams and dizziness, in some patients. Despite these side effects, it remains an indispensable component of many antiretroviral therapy regimens, exemplifying the constant evolution and innovation in the fight against HIV/AIDS.

efavirenz mechanism of action

Storage Condition of Efavirenz

Antiretroviral efavirenz is store in the room temperature, which is 20°C to 25°C. Keep this medicine away form the children for the safety purpose. If the medicine box or pack is unseal then don’t take this medicine because efavirenz mechanism of action will not work properly. Container pack is containing desiccant which will help to prevent the moisture. Before taking this medicine check the expiry of box.


Antiretroviral efavirenz is 14th approved medicine use for HIV 1 virus approved by FDA on September 21 1998. Mylan is manufacture generic tablets in Feb. 17 2016 approved by FDA.

Now a days efavirenz mechanism of action is marked by various company such as Aurobindo pharma ltd, Cipla ltd, hetero pharmaceutical and myelin pharmaceutical.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top