Detailed History of Hydroxychloroquine Medicine


Hydroxychloroquine is a medication that has been used for over 70 years to treat malaria and autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. It is a derivative of chloroquine, which was first developed in the early 20th century.

Hydroxychloroquine medicine was first synthesized in 1945 and was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1955. It quickly became the preferred antimalarial drug due to its lower toxicity and better tolerability than chloroquine.

In the 1950s, it was also found to be effective in treating lupus erythematosus. It was later shown to be effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis as well. It’s now one of the most widely used medications for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

It has grabbed global attention during the COVID-19 pandemic and has a remarkable and multifaceted history. Its journey, from the discovery of quinine bark to its current status as a potential treatment for various diseases, is a captivating tale of scientific exploration and controversy.

Origins of Quinine Bark

The story of hydroxychloroquine medicine commences in the early 17th century when Spanish colonizers in South America stumbled upon the cinchona tree’s bark. This bark, known as quina-quina, had been used by indigenous populations to combat fevers for centuries. The key ingredient, quinine, soon gained recognition for its remarkable effectiveness against malaria, a devastating tropical disease.

Quinine and Malaria:

Quinine became an invaluable asset in the battle against malaria, especially during the era of colonization in Africa and Asia. European powers utilized it extensively to safeguard their soldiers and colonists from the perils of the disease. Quinine not only saved countless lives but also reshaped global trade routes and geopolitics.

Birth of Hydroxychloroquine Medicine:

In the mid-20th century, researchers set out to enhance quinine’s effectiveness and diminish its side effects. This pursuit led to the development of hydroxychloroquine, a synthetic derivative of quinine. Initially intended for malaria treatment, its superior safety profile made it a preferable option over quinine.

Hydroxychloroquine Medicine in Autoimmune Diseases

The journey of hydroxychloroquine medicine extended far beyond its malaria roots. In the 1950s, researchers discovered its efficacy in managing autoimmune disorders such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. It quickly became an integral part of the treatment arsenal for these chronic conditions, offering respite from the debilitating symptoms they imposed.

While hydroxychloroquine’s mechanism of action is not completely understood, it is believed to modulate the immune system and reduce inflammation. These properties make it especially valuable in the treatment of autoimmune disorders. It inhibits specific enzymes and alters the pH within immune cells, resulting in a subdued immune response.

Clinical Triumph in Autoimmune Diseases:

Hydroxychloroquine medicine has demonstrated significant clinical success in the management of autoimmune diseases. Lupus patients, for instance, have reported diminished joint pain, reduced fatigue, and fewer skin rashes while taking the medication. It has become an indispensable part of the treatment regimen for these chronic conditions, offering patients an improved quality of life.

Hydroxychloroquine Medicine

Early Studies and Hope of Hydroxychloroquine Medicine

In the early days of the pandemic, hydroxychloroquine emerged as a potential candidate for COVID-19 treatment due to its observed antiviral properties in laboratory settings. Small-scale clinical trials and anecdotal reports kindled hope, leading some to believe it could be a game-changer in the battle against the virus.

Controversy of Hydroxychloroquine Medicine:

The resurgence of interest in hydroxychloroquine medicine in 2020, with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, led to a global debate. Initial studies suggested that it might hold potential as a treatment for the virus, creating a wave of optimism. However, subsequent research provided inconclusive results, and its role in treating COVID-19 became a subject of intense controversy.

Intrusion of Politics:

The debate was further inflamed by its politicization. Public figures and politicians weighed in on its efficacy, intensifying an already polarized discourse. This politicization clouded the ability to separate scientific evidence from political rhetoric, complicating the public’s understanding of the issue.

Safety Concerns and Trials

Safety concerns also came to the forefront. Like any medication, hydroxychloroquine medicine can induce side effects when used inappropriately or at high doses. Adverse effects such as heart rhythm abnormalities and other complications underscored the importance of prudent and monitored usage.

Clinical Trials:

As the pandemic evolved, larger and more rigorous clinical trials were conducted to assess its effectiveness against COVID-19. Regrettably, the results were mixed. Some studies found no discernible benefit, while others hinted at potential advantages such as reduced viral loads or shorter hospital stays.

Changing Recommendations:

Health organizations and authorities worldwide continuously revised their recommendations concerning its use for COVID-19. Initially, some countries endorsed its use as a potential treatment, but as more data emerged, many retracted their support. Ultimately, the utilization of hydroxychloroquine medicine for COVID-19 treatment was largely discouraged.

WHO Solidarity Trial:

One of the most pivotal studies investigating its efficacy in COVID-19 treatment was the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Solidarity Trial. This extensive international study scrutinized the impact of several potential treatments, including hydroxychloroquine, on COVID-19 patients. The outcome revealed no significant reduction in mortality.

Hydroxychloroquine Medicine in Prophylaxis

Beyond treatment, it was also explored as a possible preventive measure against COVID-19. Healthcare workers and individuals at elevated risk of exposure pondered its use to stave off infection. However, the evidence supporting its use in this context was limited, and it failed to gain widespread acceptance as a preventive measure.

As hydroxychloroquine medicine found itself at the centre of controversy and witnessed heightened demand during the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns arose about its availability for patients with autoimmune diseases. Lupus and rheumatoid arthritis patients heavily depended on the medication to manage their conditions, and shortages jeopardized their well-being.


Hydroxychloroquine medicine journey serves as a stark reminder that even well-established medications can become embroiled in controversy when introduced into new contexts. The lessons gleaned from its history will undoubtedly mould our approach to potential treatments in the future, underscoring the pivotal role of scientific rigour and meticulous evaluation.

In the end, the hydroxychloroquine narrative encapsulates the intricate nature of medical science. From its origins in cinchona bark to its utilization in treating malaria and autoimmune diseases, and its contentious role during the COVID-19 pandemic, this medication has profoundly influenced global health. Its story emphasizes the need for evidence-based medicine and reinforces the significance of continually scrutinizing the efficacy and safety of treatments when confronted with novel challenges.

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